The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology defines industrial engineering as: the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience and exercise is used with judgment to develop methods to utilize economically, the types of materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind worried about the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of people, materials, equipment and. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill within the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and assess the results to be obtained from such systems.
The origins of industrial engineering could be traced back to many different sources. Fredrick Winslow Taylor is most often considered as the father of industrial engineering even though all his ideas where not original. Some of the preceding influences might have been Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill. All of their works provided classical liberal explanations for the successes and limitations of the Industrial Revolution.
Another major contributor to the field was Charles W. Babbage. a mathematics professor. One of his major contributions to the field was his book On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturers in 1832. In this book he discusses many different topics coping with manufacturing, a few of which will be extremely familiar for an IE. Babbage discusses the concept of the learning curve, the division of task and how learning is affected, and also the effect of learning around the generation of waste.
Within the late nineteenth century more developments where being made that will lead to the formalization of industrial engineering. Henry R. Towne stressed the economical facet of an engineer’s job. Towne belonged to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) as did a number of other early American pioneers in this new field. The IE handbook says the, “ASME was the breeding ground for industrial engineering. Towne along with Fredrick A. Halsey worked on developing and presenting wage incentive plans to the ASME. It had been from these meetings the Halsey plan of wage payment developed. The purpose was to increase the productivity of workers without negatively affecting the price of production. The plan suggested that some of the gains be shared with the workers.. This really is one early example of one profit sharing plan.
Henry L. Gantt belonged to the ASME and presented papers to the ASME on topics such as cost, selection of workers, training, good incentive plans, and scheduling of work. He is the originator of the Gantt chart, currently the most popular chart used in scheduling of work.
hat would Industrial Engineering do without mentioning Fredrick Winslow Taylor. Taylor is probably the best known of the pioneers in industrial engineering. His work, like others, covered topics such as the organization of labor by management, worker selection, training, and extra compensation for all those individuals that could satisfy the standard as developed by the company through his methods.
The Gilbreths are accredited with the development of time and motion studies. Frank Bunker Gilbreth and his wife Dr. Lillian M. Gilbreth done understanding fatigue, skill development, motion studies, as well as time studies. Lillian Gilbreth were built with a Ph.D. in psychology which helped in understanding the many people issues. One of the most significant things the Gilbrethss did ended up being to classify the fundamental human motions into seventeen types, some effective plus some non-effective. They labeled the table of classification therbligs. Effective therbligs are helpful in accomplishing work and non-effective therbligs are not. Gilbreth figured the time to complete an effective therblig could be shortened and can be very hard to eliminate. On the other hand non-effective therbligs should be completely eliminated if possible.
In 1948, the American Institute for Industrial Engineers (AIIE), was opened for the first some time and began to give a professional authenticity for the practicing engineers. As much as this time industrial engineers really had no specific devote the hierarchy of the company. The ASME was the only other society that required its members with an engineering degree prior to the development of the AIIE.
What is the future for Industrial Engineers? With analytical methods and also the advancing technologies for the computer, modeling complex production and service systems will end up increasingly more an every day task.
Performing a motion study. Every job could be divided into its’ fundamental work elements. The Gilbreth family discovered that there are seventeen of these motions. The time to complete each motion does not change. Jobs can be studied visually or through the assistance of a camera for micro-motion studies.
The environment for the workers must also be set up to promote efficiency of work. Tools ought to be put into fixed locations to get rid of the search and selection therbligs. Work surfaces and chairs should be adjusted to the correct working heights to eliminate stress. Whenever possible, gravity feeders should be used to deliver parts to the correct location. The worker’s tools ought to be designed to eliminate multiple cuts. Adjustment handles ought to be designed to increase the operator’s mechanical advantage.
Conducting a time study. Without a standard the company will discover it tough to estimate lead-time on their own products. Times very greatly when the employee does not know what the expectation of clients are. To be able to correct this problem the IE will develop a reasonable standard expectation for each operation. It’s been estimated that 12% of the company’s total price comes from direct labor. Another 43% of cost comes from the material cost. Another 45% is spent in overhead. So the idea that the biggest productivity gains could be felt on the floor doesn’t hold up within this light. A good time study will require into account the unavoidable delays, fatigue, and to a degree, outside interferences. Time for wasteful steps, such as trying to find tools, will not be included in the final standard. The expectation would be that the workplace is going to be designed to accommodate the work and will be free of this kind of waste.
Set-Up Times Setup time is the amount of time it takes to start producing various parts on the machine. If set-up times remain large the company will operate with high levels of operate in progress and handle goods tying in the companies valuable capital. Companies that fail to reduce their set-up times have a tendency to appear sluggish in regards to their customers.
Cost An IE will generally be responsible for coming up with a cost analysis on the equipment purchase. There are a a number of ways of coming up with this. Lifehow long the machine is anticipated to last when developing the price analysis.
Efficiency The traditional way of taking a look at efficiency ended up being to keep your machine running at a 100% The idea was the cost of the machine might be disseminate over the amount of time it was kept running. The larger the machines efficiency, time running / time available, the better the accounting numbers looked in regards to machine cost.
Material The IE is worried with the delivery and flow of fabric throughout the plant, often the plant has changed as the company has.
Lot size To allow the maker to remain flexible the development lot sizes ought to be minimalized. This can simply be economical after the decrease in machine set-ups happen to be achieved.
Inventory Levels Since inventory is capital that can’t be converted until finished and purchased by a consumer, it should be kept to some minimal. Inventories not only tie up capital but if the customer requests a big change then your inventory runs the risk of becoming obsolete.
Quality The standard of the material can impact every part of the system. Low quality material often introduces excessive amounts of rework into each of the processes. A typical job for an IE would be to work with the quality department to set up a Quality Management system QMS.
Maintenance The quantity of maintenance the machine is going to require is a flexible that must be considered. Something about maintenance is whether or not the staff available will need to be retrained.